All posts by Robert Rhinebeck


Works cited


Calloway,Colin. First Peoples A Documentary Survey of American Indian History. New York & Boston: Bedford/St.Martin’s,2011.Print.

Grumet, Robert. Historic Content: Indian People and Colonists in Today’s Northeastern United States in the  Sixteenth Through Eighteenth Centuries.Norman:University of Oklahoma Press,1995.Print.

Morgan, Lewis. League of the Iroquois. New York :Corinth,1969. Print.

Wissler, Clark. Indians of the United States.Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, Inc.,1966. Print.


Broome County Native American Features


Broome County, New York, provides numerous connections to Native American roots, and  cultures. There are many historical areas and  landscapes of Broome County that feature Native American land. One significant feature of the area is the Susquehanna river that extends for hundreds of miles, and is known as  the longest river along the East Coast. The Susquehanna river is the sixteenth longest river of the United States.

Please visit for more info


Centuries ago, Native Americans used to own land comprised of longhouses near the Susquehanna river. The beauty of Binghamton is captured through the pictures below featuring the Susquehanna River, and Choconut creek. Choconut Creek is another significant Native American landmark.  The map found in Lewis Henry Morgan’s Book “League of the Iroquois”, featured the Tuscarora Indians which were located within the Broome County Region In the year 1720.   The interactive map labels the six Iroquois nations in  New York State,  Please visit the Interactive Map Section on the website. Several tribes were associated with Broome county, NY. Native American culture geographically and historically has greatly influenced the rich history of Broome County.





Choconut was named after a creek associated with the Native American origin. The Choconut creek starts at Susquehanna county  Pennsylvania and eventually ends up near Vestal N.Y. Broome County, in which the site was comprised of Iroquois longhouses. The water flow of the Choconut creek eventually meets the Susquehanna river.

Please visit for more info on Choconut creek Landscape


Picture of Choconut Creek



Picture of Susquehanna River that connects to Johnson City, Vestal N.Y.

In the picture Erie-Lackawanna bridge extends over the Susquehanna River





“Small amounts of smelted copper scrap, cold hammered smelted copper hoops, and spirals, and glass beads” were located within Binghamton New York area in the late sixteenth century.(Grumet,425) Bowland, Comfort station and the Ochquaga Complex were classified as historic sites found in Broome County NY in the 1700’s, the 18th century(Grumet,427). Near Binghamton NY, located at the “Comfort Station site on the Chenango River” identified remnants of a colonial Otsiningo Nanticoke community.(Grumet, 428)



Special Thanks to the Collection center of Binghamton University Library and Leigh Eckmair.

The Indian towns In the mid eighteenth century there were approximately 600 Native American peoples that settled on various landscapes. These landscapes comprised of villages in the area of now called Broome County.  During this time period the Ouaquaga Native Americans represented the Oneida tribe. The Chenango featured the Onondaga peoples, and Owego Native American people were the Cayuga Indians. Chenango county is currently adjacent to Broome county today. The counties Delaware and Tioga also border Broome county. Both counties Tioga, and Delaware had connections to Native American History or were associated with Native Americans.

The Native American tribes such as the Cayugas, the Mahicans, and the Nanticokes are mentioned to be associated with the village on the landscape of the present day Vestal area. The Broome County region featured numerous Indian landscapes that were territories of the following tribes: Ouaquaga, Tuscarora , Susquehanna, Chenango , Nanticoke, and Choconut.

The lower portion of the Tuscarora towns were located below the village of Winsdor in Broome County; the towns were in close proximity to the village of Windsor, less than two miles away.


The Northeast Native American Cultures section is  for educational purposes only.

The Seneca Tribe



The wampum belt symbol of the Seneca tribe represented the “keepers of the western door”. The Seneca tribe were known as people of the  big hill. The Seneca Indians today only tribe to own a U.S. city.  In 1660 there were approximately 5000 Seneca Native Americans. Today the Seneca population has doubled with approx. 10,000 in total.

There were numerous treaties that involved land the Seneca tribes participated in. In 1794 a treaty kept peace between the United Sates and many Native Americans with land negotiations. The Saint Mary’s treaty of 1818 negotiated ownership to the title of acquisitions of new land.

Red Jacket a respected Seneca Chief was known to have a good long term memory, and effective speaker who was a remarkable leader that represented the Seneca tribe.

Seneca Chief of Wolf Clan 18th century




Another leader of the Seneca tribe was Famer’s Brother. Farmer’s brother had connections with Red Jacket. He supported the United States of 1812. Showed commitment to fight for his tribe and to help support his allies. He also showed peace and attempted to prevent his tribe form entering into war.

Black Snake a Seneca War chief of the 18th century. He fought for the United States in the “Battle  of Oriskany 1777″ and also fought for the Europeans later.


The Cayuga Tribe


Source: Please visit for more info

Cayuga is a language among the Iroquois of the Eastern Woodlands. Approximately 150 Cayuga Native Americans speak the language today. There are a few elders of New York state that speak the Cayuga language.

The Cayuga Native American tribe had 10 sachems(Calloway,56).

Red Cloud was a well known Cayuga Indian Chief.

Please click on picture to see enlarged image 



Red Cloud Cayuga Native American Indian Chief


The Onondaga Indian Tribe

The wampum belt symbol of the Onondaga tribe represented “keepers of the council fire”.

The Onondaga tribe had 14 sachems(Calloway,56). League sachems meet and even meet today at Onondaga territory near Syracuse N.Y. They also hold annual general assembly meetings(Calloway,57). In 1744, an Onondaga public speaker Canasatego strongly considered Onondaga Native Americans to follow the path “unity and amity” a friendly relationship, which was created by our “wise forefathers”. The core of the Iroquois League was at Onondaga(Calloway,).

Onondaga Indians commonly used wood and some were lacrosse stick makers. (Please see video from interactive map)

Hiawatha one of the members associated with the Onondaga tribe, was recognized coming up with the idea of creating the Iroquois Confederacy.

source :


The Mohawk Indian Tribe


The wampum belt symbol of the Mohawk Native American tribe represented the “keepers of the Eastern Door.” Many Sixteenth century Native American artifacts were discovered at various archaeological sites such as, Mohawk Valley. Rumrill a dedicated amateur developed a “chronological framework” consisting of data collected form the Mohawk Valley area(Grumet,353).

According to “documentation on all known sixteenth century Mohawk Valley sites is recorded in the Mohawk Drainage Site Inventory” at SUNY Albany University(Grumet,359).

The word Mohawk is believed to be an Algonquian Indian translation meaning either “bear or man eating cannibal monster(Grumet,360).”Mohawks refer to themselves as “Kaniengehaga which means : people of the place of the flint.

Joseph Brant Mohawk Indian Chief 18th century



The Tuscarora Indian tribe

In the early eighteenth century the Tuscarora Native American peoples became known as the sixth tribe comprised of the “Iroquois Confederacy.” The Tuscarora Indians became of the sixth Iroquois nation.

The Binghamton landscape of 1720 was comprised of territory to the Tuscarora Indian peoples of the long house(Grumet).

Each longhouse can hold about 60 people inside.

Reconstruction of an Iroquois Longhouse




Longhouse Near Victor ,NY



Surrounding places such as Shamokin, became multicultural centers as “the Nanicoke, Tuscarora and Saponi immigrants” found either distinct communities or migrated to territories of their own with vast town facilities(Grumet, 428).


Special thanks to Collections center at Binghamton University and Leigh Eckmair

The Tuscarora Indians were known as a heavily populated tribe; two of their villages settled above and below Ouaquaga land. Numerous villages of the Tuscarora people were “with Oneida’s in Madison and Oneida counties.”

North-East Native American Cultures Iroquois

Welcome to the North-East Native American Cultures Web Site. Hello, my name is Robert Rhinebeck a student in part with the Microcosm class at Binghamton University.   We will mainly discuss the League Of Nations of the Iroquois such as Cayuga, Mohawk, Seneca, Oneida, Onondaga as well as the sixth tribe added later the Tuscarora. My great-great-great-great Grandmother (4 generations ago) was a Mohawk Native American. The Native Americans for centuries experienced plight and massive cultural deterioration. Despite the harsh circumstances, the Native Americans never gave up and believed these three things were the utmost importance. They were family, land, and religion. Perhaps people that visit this website have some connection to Native American culture. Hopefully this website can answer some of your  questions. Perhaps people who view this site are just curious about Native American cultures in general. Hopefully this website can answer these questions as well. Also there is an additional  approximate 6 minute video at bottom of the page. Enjoy. 


   16th Century to present

Iroquois Native Americans were associated with six different tribes in New York State such as : Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk and Tuscarora along with their neighbors including Susquehanna (Wissler,126).

Iroquois used wampum for currency and used it as a symbol to represent Iroquois Native American culture as a whole.

Religion to Native Americans played an important role in their life which encapsulated various belief systems.

This picture represents the wampum belt that symbolized each of the first five Iroquois nations.

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The Iroquois Native Americans were referred to as “real snakes.”

Native American leaders were called sachems or council chief of their tribe.

The first five nations of the Iroquois group were known as “People of the Longhouse(Grumet, 334)”

A Historian George Hunt explained in great detail the success Iroquois achieved from trade(Morgan,xv).

The Trans Appalachian region located in the North eastern region of the United States among the sixteenth through the eighteenth century; most residents of this particular region initially crossed paths with Europeans, and were believed to speak dialect based on the Northern Iroquois Indian peoples(Grumet, 327).

Please Click On Image to Enlarge

Source: Mid-Manhattan Picture Collection / American history — 1620s


Trans Appalachian site considered homeland to five Iroquois Nations as Tuscaroras came later.

Iroquoia is a term that symbolizes the “heartland” of the Iroquois Native Americans(Grumet, 330).

Archaeologists discovered pattern formations between 800 A.D. and 100 A.D. among Northern Iroquois cultures; transformation signaled original sightings of triangular shaped artifacts with “chipped stone projectile points, and domestically clay pots, and tobacco pipes(Grumet, 331).”

Lamoka stone projectile point

Special Thanks to Center for the Study of Human Origins website



 Women played the role of farming as the men played the role for hunting. Women  planted the vegetables corn, bean, and squash. The men hunted for food such as deer, rabbit and sometimes bear.   Deer and bear became popular resources for food( and clothing  among the sixteenth century inhabitants(Grumet,333).  Fur became historically significant as Indian tribes came in contact with European settlers and greeted Native Americans peoples with gifts such as, “glass beads, sheet copper, and woven textiles for food, furs, and favors.”

The Indian chiefs main priorities were to make the military decisions as well as land negotiations of their tribe.

The Iroquois used hollow canoes for transportation. The Europeans introduced horses to Native Americans as they bred them and used them for transportation.

Iroquois commonly used various animal bone and used them as tools for pottery.

In the 1690′s late in the 17th century, approximately 2000 Iroquois Indians died from disease in this particular instance.

The American Government system today has been influenced by the Native American government.

Trading posts were essential to Native Americans economically and culturally.

Several wars broke out in the eighteenth century, primarily involving the British and the Native American Iroquois peoples, over massive land disputes (Grumet, 444). Later in the eighteenth century Iroquois tribes were forced to relocate by selling their property and migrate to live on “reservations.”

According to Leigh Eckmair. Otstenigo County was the starting point of Native American society. Encouraged tourism to be the path to follow among Native American peoples. 1738 became a major Native American trading post. The Mohawk river tied into the  connections among Native American groups.